Gasoline or petrol is a transparent, petroleum-derived oil that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. Some gasolines also contain ethanol as an alternative fuel. In North America, the term gasoline is often shortened in colloquial usage to gas, despite the ambiguity created by the latter term's scientific association with non-liquids in gaseous form. This requires petroleum fuel in a gaseous state to be referred to as natural gas to avoid confusion with liquid "gas". Elsewhere petrol is the common name in the UK, Republic of Ireland, Australia and in most of the other Commonwealth countries. Under normal conditions, its physical state is a liquid, and it petroleum-derived name avoids confusion with liquefied petroleum gas or natural gas.
Naphtha normally refers to a number of flammable liquid mixtures of hydrocarbons, i.e. a component of natural gas condensate or a distillation product from petroleum, coal tar, or peat boiling in a certain range and containing certain hydrocarbons. It is a broad term covering among the lightest and most volatile fractions of the liquid hydrocarbons in petroleum. Naphtha is a colorless to reddish-brown volatile aromatic liquid, very similar to gasoline.
Naphtha's molecular weight is 100–215 g/mol. Its density is 750–785 kg/m3, and boiling point is 160–220 °C (320–428 °F). Vapor pressure is less than 666 Pa (5 torr; 5 mmHg). Naphtha is colorless (kerosene odor) or red-brown (aromatic odor) liquid and is insoluble in water.
Kerosene, a thin, clear liquid formed from hydrocarbons, with a density of 0.78–0.81 g/cm3, is obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum between 150 °C and 275 °C, resulting in a mixture of carbon chains that typically contain between 6 and 16 carbon atoms per molecule.
Kerosene, a thin, clear liquid formed from hydrocarbons, with a density of 0.78–0.81 g/cm3, is obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum between 150 °C and 275 °C, resulting in a mixture of carbon chains that typically contain between 6 and 16 carbon atoms per molecule. Regardless of the crude oil source or processing history, the major components of all kerosenes are branched and straight chain paraffins and naphthenes (cycloparaffins), which normally account for at least 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons in this boiling range, such as alkylbenzenes (single ring) and alkylnaphthalenes (double ring) do not normally exceed 25% by volume of kerosene streams. Olefins are usually not present at more than 5% by volume. The flash point of kerosene is between 37 and 65 °C (100 and 150 °F), and its autoignition temperature is 220 °C (428 °F). The pour point of kerosene depends on grade, with commercial aviation fuel standardized at −47 °C (−53 °F).
Heating and lighting: At one time, the fuel was widely used in kerosene lamps and lanterns.
Transportation: In the mid-20th century, kerosene or tractor vaporising oil (TVO) was used as a cheap fuel for tractorsIn the mid-20th century, kerosene or tractor vaporising oil (TVO) was used as a cheap fuel for tractors..
3-Rubber Process oil
8-Crude Fuel Oil
2- engine Oil:
Gasoline Engine Oil
1-API Service Classification SJ
2- API Service Classification SL
3- API Service Classification SM
Diesel Engine Oil:
1- API Service Classification CD
2- API Service Classification CE
3- API Service Classification CF
4- API Service Classification CF4
5- API Service Classification CH4
6- API Service Classification CG4
7- API Service Classification CI4
8- API Service Classification Cj4
Gasoline and Diesel Engine Oil:
1- API Service Classification SC/CC
2- API Service Classification SE/CC
3- API Service Classification SF/CC
4- Service Classification MIL-L-2104E
5- API Service Classification SG/CC
1-Light Hydro Carbon
2-Heavy Hydro Carbon
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups, called hydrocarbyls. Aromatic hydrocarbons (arenes), alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons.
The majority of hydrocarbons found on earth naturally occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless chains.
Extracted hydrocarbons in a liquid form are referred to as petroleum (literally "rock oil") or mineral oil, whereas hydrocarbons in a gaseous form are referred to as natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are found in the Earth's subsurface with the tools of petroleum geology and are a significant source of fuel and raw materials for the production of organic chemicals.
The extraction of liquid hydrocarbon fuel from sedimentary basins is integral to modern energy development. Hydrocarbons are mined from tar sands and oil shale, and potentially extracted from sedimentary methane hydrates. These reserves require distillation and upgrading to produce synthetic crude and petroleum.
Hydrocarbons are economically important because major fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas, and its derivatives such as plastics, paraffin, waxes, solvents and oils are hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons – along with NOx and sunlight – contribute to the formation of tropospheric ozone and greenhouse gases.
Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. Broadly speaking fuel oil is any liquid petroleum product that is burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power, except oils having a flash point of approximately 40 °C (104 °F) and oils burned in cotton or wool-wick burners. In this sense, diesel is a type of fuel oil. Fuel oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains, particularly alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics. The term fuel oil is also used in a stricter sense to refer only to the heaviest commercial fuel that can be obtained from crude oil i.e. heavier than gasoline and naphtha.